Massage | Ointments and creams | Baths | Footbaths and handbaths | Sitz baths and bidets
Hydrotherapy baths and Jacuzzis | Showers | Compresses | Gargles | Steam inhalation
Handkerchief | Hands | Room Spray | Water Bowl | Vapourizers and Diffusers | Pillow
Oil Burners | Light Bulb Ring | Radiator Fragrancer | Open Fire | Candles
Massage even without essential oils is a powerful therapy.
The combination of pure essential oils and massage is even more potent. Massage is one of the most effective and beneficial treatment techniques. Essential oil constituents pass through the skin and they are taken into the bloodstream and can be carried to all the cells of the body. Essential oils are not usually applied in an undiluted form to the skin except for emergencies such as burns, cuts or a sting. They must be blended with a suitable carrier oil in the appropriate dilution.
When blending essential oil with a base oil, the essential oil content is usually between one per cent and three per cent.
A massage takes between 10 ml and 20 ml of oil.
Since a teaspoon holds approximately 5 ml, a treatment will require only two to four teaspoons of base oil.
The following guidelines will help you to blend your oils in the appropriate dilutions.
3 drops of essential oil to 10 ml (1/3 fl.oz.) of carrier oil
4-5 drops of essential oil to 15 ml (1/2 fl.oz.) of carrier oil
6 drops of essential oil to 20 ml (2/3 fl.oz.) of carrier oil
15 drops of essential oil to 50 ml (1 2/3 fl.oz.) of carrier oil
30 drops of essential oil to 100 ml (3 2/5 fl.oz.) of carrier oil
For babies up to the age of twelve months, the appropriate dilutions are:
Babies (0–2 months): 1 drop to15 ml (1/2 fl.oz.) carrier oil
Babies (2–12 months): 1 drop to10 ml (1/3 fl.oz.) carrier oil.
|Carrier Oil||Essential Oil Dilution|
|Oz.||Measure||1% Dilution||2% Dilution||3% Dilution||4% Dilution||5% Dilution|
|1/6 oz.||5mls||1 drop||2 drops||3 drops||4 drops||5 drops|
|1/3 oz.||10mls||2 drops||4 drops||6 drops||8 drops||10 drops|
|1/2 oz.||15mls||3 drops||6 drops||9 drops||12 drops||15 drops|
|2/3 oz.||20mls||4 drops||8 drops||12 drops||16 drops||20 drops|
|5/6 oz.||25mls||5 drops||10 drops||15 drops||20 drops||25 drops|
|1 oz.||30mls||6 drops||12 drops||18 drops||24 drops||30 drops|
|1 2/3 oz.||50mls||10 drops||20 drops||30 drops||40 drops||50 drops|
|Dropper measures / Conversions||ml / cc||Measure||Drops||Ounces|
This chart assumes that 20 drops of essential oil = 1ml.
For example 1% dilution of lavender will be obtained by mixing:
|1 ml||N/A||20 drops||N/A|
|5 ml||1 teaspoon||100 drops||1/6 fl. oz|
|7.5 ml||N/A||150 drops||1/4 fl. oz|
|10 ml||2 teaspoons||200 drops||1/3 fl. oz.|
|15 ml||1 tablespoon||300 drops||1/2 fl. oz|
|30 ml||2 tablespoons||600 drops||1 fl. oz|
|100mls||3 2/5 fl. oz|
|250mls||8 1/2 fl. oz|
|1000mls||33 4/5 fl. oz.|
|5000mls||1.32 gallons (US)|
1 dram = 0.125(1/8) ounce = 0.3125 ml /cc
Ointments and creams
Sometimes you may prefer to apply a cream to a particular area of the body rather than an oil. It is possible to create some wonderful moisturizers for the face, and they make lovely presents. You can also blend your own hand creams and foot creams to alleviate cracked and chapped skin, redness and irritation, infections, chilblains, and so forth. Some aromatherapy suppliers produce a cream without essential oils to which you can add your own. Ensure that it is non-mineral based, organic and lanolin-free for optimum results.
You can, if you wish, prepare your own cream. You will need:
- yellow beeswax
- sweet almond oil (or avocado, jojoba or any vegetable oil)
- distilled water (or lavender water, orange water or rose water).
Use one part of beeswax to four parts of oil.
A suggested recipe would be: 20 g of yellow beeswax 80 ml of sweet almond oil 40 ml of distilled water
Melt the beeswax and almond oil together in a pan of water over a gentle heat.
Heat the distilled water gently in another bowl to blood temperature (37°C).
Remove from the heat. Add the warm distilled water gradually to the oil mixture, beating all the time.~
Once the cream has cooled you may add 30 drops of pure essential oil.
Put the cream into amber-coloured glass jars and store in a cool place.
1. To counteract dryness, soothe irritation and to keep your hands soft add benzoin and sandalwood to your hand cream.
2. For feel-good feet try lavender and peppermint in your foot cream to soothe and cool aching feet!
Aromatherapy baths have been employed for pleasure and therapeutic purposes throughout history. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, claimed that ‘the way to health is to have an aromatic bath and a scented massage every daydaily’.
Baths were particularly enjoyed by the ancient Egyptians who had public baths, as did the Romans for whom they were an important aspect of social life. Water itself is therapeutic: ‘water cures’ are advocated by naturopaths, and various forms of hydrotherapy can be found in use nowadays at health farms and natural therapy centres. Baths are an effective way of using essential oils as the oils act in two ways; by absorption into the skin and by inhalation.
Essential oils are simple to use in the bath. Just fill the bath and scatter about six drops of your chosen undiluted oil into the water, agitating it thoroughly. Do not add the essential oil until you have run the bath completely, otherwise the oil will evaporate with the heat of the water and the therapeutic properties will be lost before you climb in! Always disperse the oil – if you inadvertently sit down on neat essential oil of, say, tangerine you will jump up again very quickly! Shut the door to keep the precious aromas in and stay in the bath for at least fifteen minutes to allow the oil to penetrate deeply into your body tissues.
Remember to use just 6 drops of essential oil in your bath.
To de-stress try 2 drops of geranium, 2 drops lavender and 2 drops ylang ylang.
To wake you up or to rejuvenate after a long hard day try 2 drops rosemary, 2 drops lemon and 2 drops black pepper.
As essential oils are not soluble in water you may blend your six drops of essential oil with a teaspoon of carrier oil for a moisturizing bath. This is particularly beneficial for those with dry skin, although carrier oils can leave a greasy ring around the bath. However, special, unscented bath oils, which contain natural dispersing agents, can be purchased. These leave the skin feeling soft but not greasy. Choose any vegetable oil such as sweet almond, wheatgerm, avocado or jojoba. You could mix up enough oil for several baths. Your skin will feel soft, nourished and supple.
Absolutes and resinoids such as jasmine and benzoin should be blended with a teaspoon of carrier oil as they tend to sink to the bottom of the bath and are difficult to clean off! I would strongly advise anyone with a sensitive skin to always blend the essential oil with a carrier oil. Also when using essential oils in a bath for babies and young children the oils should also be blended with a carrier oil.
Undiluted essential oils can damage the eyes and babies and toddlers do have a tendency to rub their eyes.
Use one drop in a baby’s bath and two drops in a toddler’s bath diluted in a teaspoon of a carrier oil such as sweet almond oil. I can endorse the effectiveness of this method. Any essential oil may be added to a bath. Although caution should be exercised with the citrus oils and the stronger essences such as black pepper and peppermint if you have particularly sensitive skin. Just add three drops instead of six. Essential oils may also be added to sea salt or magnesium sulphate. Bath salts help to promote detoxification and also relieve aching muscles. To make you own aromatherapy bath salts add no more than 1 ml of essential oils to 100 g of salt.
Hydrotherapy baths and Jacuzzis
Use the same number of drops as you would in a normal bath, although if it is a large hydrotherapy bath designed for two to three persons then ten drops may be added. Sprinkle in your essential oils after the bath has been filled. The essential oils, however, must not be diluted in vegetable oils, which can coat the pipes.
Footbaths and hand baths Footbaths and hand baths are highly beneficial in situations where it is impractical to enjoy a full aromatherapy bath – perhaps if you are elderly or have a disability. Footbaths, in particular, are incredibly relaxing at the end of a long, hard day especially when you feel too lethargic to undress. They are excellent for foot conditions such as athlete’s foot and pain and swelling in the feet. Hand baths help to relieve the pain, stiffness and swelling of arthritis. Anyone who uses their hands extensively such as hairdressers, gardeners or computer personnel should have regular hand baths.
Add six drops of essential oil to a bowl of hand-hot water just before you immerse your feet or hands and soak for about ten to fifteen minutes. If you wish you may mix your essential oils with a carrier oil.
Footbaths and handbaths are highly beneficial in situations where it is impractical to enjoy a full aromatherapy bath. Add six drops of essential oil to a bowl of hand-hot water just before you immerse your feet or hands and soak for about ten to fifteen minutes
A sitz bath is beneficial in cases of cystitis, haemorrhoids, vaginal discharge, stitches after childbirth, and so on. Sprinkle about four to six drops of pure essential oil into a bowl of hand-hot water and sit in the bowl for about ten minutes. Your essential oils may be added to a carrier oil. If you are fortunate enough to have a bidet then use the same number of drops. Ensure that the essential oil and water are thoroughly mixed. Jug douche
This method is excellent for combating vaginal discharge and infections as well as anal problems. Boil a kettle and allow the water to cool in a one-litre jug ensuring that there is no lime scale. Add six drops of essential oil. Lift both the seat as well as the lid of the toilet. Stand over the toilet and pour the solution over the vaginal and anal area. Dry the area gently. If you wish to carry out this treatment at work you can prepare the solution in a one-litre plastic bottle.
A shower can never be as relaxing as a bath when using essential oils. However, it can be quite a stimulating way to begin your day.
Apply six drops of essential oil to a sponge or a flannel and rub all over your body towards the end of your shower. Alternatively, add six drops of essential oil to two teaspoons of carrier oil and apply to your body before stepping into the shower. Make sure that you inhale the warming vapours. Another method is to plug the tray of your shower, turn on the water and add six drops of essential oil to the water. You will absorb the oils through your feet and as the vapours rise you will inhale them.
Compresses can be used for a variety of disorders such as muscular aches and pains, bruises, rheumatic and arthritic pain, headaches and sprains. They are a very effective way of relieving pain and reducing inflammation and swelling. You may apply compresses either hot or cold. Alternate hot and cold compresses are valuable for treating sprains. As a general rule, where there is fever, acute pain or hot swellings use a cold compress. When treating chronic (long-term) pain use a hot compress.
To make a compress, mix approximately six drops of essential oil into a small bowl of hot or cold water. Soak any piece of absorbent material such as a flannel, handkerchief, piece of sheeting or towelling in the solution ensuring that as much essential oil as possible is absorbed by your fabric. Squeeze out the compress so it does not drip everywhere and apply to the affected area. Wrap clingfilm around it or secure with a bandage. Leave for about two hours or even overnight. Where there is a fever replace with a new cold compress when necessary.
• Apply a lavender compress to your forehead or the back of your neck to relieve a fever or a headache.
• Make a compress using 2 drops lavender, 2 drops peppermint and 2 drops rosemary to relieve muscular aches and joint pain.
Gargles are particularly beneficial for sore throats, respiratory problems, loss of voice and halitosis (bad breath). After dental surgery gargling can help to relieve pains and inflammation, reduce blood flow and speed up the healing process. Gargle twice daily, although if the problem is acute then you can gargle every two hours.
Put two drops of essential oil into half a glass of water. Stir well, gargle and spit it out. Do not swallow. Stir again and repeat.
You may also use 1–2 teaspoons of organic cider vinegar or lemon and/or a teaspoon of honey in your gargle. Honey has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties and is renowned for it’s soothing action on the throat, and fresh lemon juice is antibacterial, detoxifying and counteracts acidity. Antiseptic oils such as tea tree, lemon and thyme are excellent for treating sore throats.
German/Roman chamomile, geranium and sandalwood will also soothe inflammation. Myrrh and tea tree combined are very useful for treating mouth ulcers.
Inhalation of essential oils works upon the body, mind and spirit.
On a physical level there is a strong action on the mucous membranes of the nose, the lungs and the respiratory system in general. Conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, colds, sinusitis and sore throats can all benefit enormously.
The inhalation of essential oils has a profound effect on the nervous system helping to relieve insomnia, anxiety and stress-related disorders, and lifting depression and negativity.
On a spiritual level some essential oils such as frankincense, cedarwood and linden blossom raise the consciousness and provide an excellent aid for meditation.
Put boiling water into a small bowl and add two to six drops of essential oil.
Place the bowl on to a warm place, if possible, for maximum effect (e.g. a radiator). Ensure that small children do not drink the solution or knock it over.
Close the doors and windows for a few minutes to enable the aroma to fill the room.
Sprinkle a few drops of essential oil on to a handkerchief, paper towel or tissue and take a few deep breaths.
This method is particularly effective for relieving nasal congestion (use cajeput, eucalyptus) and also for stopping panic attacks (use lavender).
Place the handkerchief in your pocket and you can continue to inhale the aroma throughout the day.
Sufferers of motion sickness will also find this method effective.
In a crisis you situation put one drop of lavender on to your palm, rub your hands together, cup them over your nose and then breathe deeply.
Avoid the eye area and ensure that your eyes are closed. It is not a good idea to open a bottle of essential oil and inhale straight from it.
Frequent opening of essential oils accelerates the rate of evaporation and therapeutic properties are lost.
Also, removing essential oils stains from your carpet can be expensive!
A room spray is a excellent way of purifying the atmosphere.
Pour 250 ml of water into a plant spray and add 15–20 drops of essential oil. Shake the bottle well and spray the room.
You can even spray carpets and curtains. Do not spray on to polished surfaces.
Sprays can also be used to relieve irritation and pain as in chicken-pox, shingles, burns and any infectious skin diseases.
Electric vaporizers are sometimes used in clinics and hospital settings since they are considered to be safe.
Electric diffusers, which do not use heat, are also becoming popular. However, both vaporizers and diffusers particularly can be rather expensive. Therefore, for home use, I recommend a clay vaporizer heated by a night light. These are readily available. Put a few teaspoons of water into the loose bowl on top and sprinkle about six drops of essential oil into it. Light the night light and the oil will diffuse into the air.
For relaxation burn oils such as lavender, chamomile, sandalwood or ylang ylang. For meditation try frankincense
To repel insects use citronella .
Place a few drops of essential oil on to a pillow or your nightwear for relief from insomnia and to encourage easier and deeper breathing. If desired, you could put the drops on to a piece of cotton wool and place it inside the pillow case. Lavender and chamomile are both excellent
Two drops of essential oil can be sprinkled on to a ceramic or metal ring which fits on to a light bulb. Only apply your oils when the lamp is off and the ring is cool ensuring that you do not get any oil on the light bulb itself or on the fitting, as essential oils are inflammable.
Two to six drops of essential oil can be placed into a ceramic container which fits on to a radiator by means of a magnet.
Alternatively, moisten a cotton-wool ball slightly with water, sprinkle the drops of essential oil on to the ball and place it on the radiator, or even lodge it by the pipe to avoid staining the paint surface. The heat from the radiator will evaporate the essential oil into the room.
Terms and Conditions
No information on this site is intended as a substitute for professional medical advice.
If pregnant, epileptic or suffering from high blood pressure consult a qualified aromatherapist before using essential oils.
It is advisable that before commencing any aromatherapy treatment, either at home or with a qualified practitioner, that you consult your medical doctor regarding suitability for treatment
Whilst every effort is taken to ensure that the information contained in this website is correct and up-to-date. neither Denise Brown Ltd nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
We cannot be held responsible for any damages to property or for any adverse physical effects (including injury or bodily harm) caused by insufficient knowledge or the improper use of a product.
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